Roman justice, as it were, began, roughly, in about 27 bc and ended in either 476 ad, if one is referring to the original roman empire, or as late as 1453 ad, in regards to the offshoot holy roman empire.
Capital and corporal punishment in judaism has a complex history which has been a subject of extensive debate while the bible and the talmud specify capital and corporal punishments, including death by stoning, decapitation, burning, and strangulation for some crimes, these punishments were substantially modified during the rabbinic era, primarily by adding additional requirements for conviction.
During the republic and early empire, being a roman citizen was tremendously valuable for anyone accused of a crime citizens were tried in different courts than noncitizens, and much milder punishments were meted out for conviction of identical crimes. A period in history defined as the time between the death of alexander the great and the rise of roman domination during this time, greek culture was dominant throughout the mediterranean, the term is derived from the greek hellas which means greece.
During the middle ages, capital punishment was accompanied by torture most barons had a drowning pit as well as gallows and they were used for major as well as minor crimes for example, in 1279, two hundred and eighty nine jews were hanged for clipping coin. If a roman citizen killed a slave or any person of lesser status then there was no punishment at all protecting the status and position of the roman citizens was considered to be a paramount concern and to be stripped of that status was one of the worst punishments imaginable, especially as then you could be subjected to one of the more inventive methods of roman execution. During the empire, if convicted of a crime, one could also choose to be sent to the arena crucifixion considered to be the most cruel and disgusting form of punishment undeniably effective, both in providing a slow and painful death and in creating a public display to warn others reserved for slaves, pirates, and enemies of the state.
Classical greece flourished during the 5th to 4th centuries bc this was marked by the period of the persian wars (c 510-479 bc), the golden age of athens (c 479-404 bc), and the later classical era (404-338 bc) greek civilization had a powerful influence on the roman empire indeed, some modern scholars see the roman era as a continuation of the same civilization, which they label “graeco-roman.